The Return of the Prodigal Son (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The Parable of the Prodigal Son is found in Luke chapter 15, verses 11-32. The main character in the parable, the forgiving father, whose character remains constant throughout the story, is a picture ofGod. In telling the story,Jesusidentifies
Himself with God in His loving attitude to the lost. The younger son
symbolizes the lost (the tax collectors and sinners of that day, Luke 15:1), and the elder brother represents the self-righteous (the Pharisees and teachers of the law of that day, Luke 15:2). The major theme of this parable seems not to be so much the conversion of the sinner, as in the previous two parables of Luke 15,
but rather the restoration of a believer into fellowship with the
Father. In the first two parables, the owner went out to look for what
was lost (Luke 15:1-10),
whereas in this story the father waits and watches eagerly for his
son’s return. We see a progression through the three parables from the
relationship of one in a hundred (Luke 15:1-7), to one in ten (Luke 15:8-10), to one in one (Luke 15:11-32),
demonstrating God’s love for each individual and His personal
attentiveness towards all humanity. We see in this story the
graciousness of the father overshadowing the sinfulness of the son, as it is the memory of the father’s goodness that brings the prodigal son to repentance (Romans 2:4). We will begin unfolding the
meaning of this parable at verse 12, in which the younger son asks his
father for his share of his estate, which would have been half of what
his older brother would receive; in other words, 1/3 for the younger,
2/3 for the older (Deuteronomy 21:17).
Though it was perfectly within his rights to ask, it was not a loving
thing to do, as it implied that he wished his father dead. Instead of
rebuking his son, the father patiently grants him his request. This is a
picture of God letting a sinner go his own way (Deuteronomy 30:19). We all possess this foolish ambition to be independent, which is at the root of the sinner persisting in his sin (Genesis 3:6; Romans 1:28). A sinful state is a departure and distance from God (Romans 1:21). A sinful state is also a state of constant discontent. Luke 12:15 says, “Watch out! Be on your guard against all kinds of greed; a man’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.”
This son learned the hard way that covetousness leads to a life of
dissatisfaction and disappointment. He also learned that the most
valuable things in life are the things you cannot buy or replace. In verse 13 we read that he
travels to a distant country. It is evident from his previous actions
that he had already made that journey in his heart, and the physical
departure was a display of his willful disobedience to all the goodness
his father had offered (Proverbs 27:19; Matthew 6:21; 12:34).
In the process, he squanders all his father had worked so hard for on
selfish, shallow fulfillment, losing everything. His financial disaster
is followed by a natural disaster in the form of a famine, which he
failed to plan for (Genesis 41:33-36).
At this point he sells himself into physical slavery to a Gentile and
finds himself feeding pigs, a detestable job to the Jewish people (Leviticus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8; Isaiah 65:4; 66:17).
Needless to say, he must have been incredibly desperate at that point
to willingly enter into such a loathsome position. And what an irony
that his choices led him to a position in which he had no choice but to
work, and for a stranger at that, doing the very things he refused to do
for his father. To top it off, he apparently was paid so little that he
longed to eat the pig’s food. Just when he must have thought life could
not get any worse, he couldn’t even find mercy among the people.
Apparently, once his wealth was gone, so were his friends. The text
clearly says, “No one gave him anything” (vs. 16).
Even these unclean animals seemed to be better off than he was at this
point. This is a picture of the state of the lost sinner or a rebellious
Christian who has returned to a life of slavery to sin (2 Peter 2:19-21). It is a picture of what sin really does in a person’s life when he rejects the Father’s will (Hebrews 12:1; Acts 8:23).“Sin
always promises more than it gives, takes you further than you wanted
to go, and leaves you worse off than you were before.” Sin promises
freedom but brings slavery (John 6:23). The son begins to reflect on his
condition and realizes that even his father’s servants had it better
than he. His painful circumstances help him to see his father in a new
light and bring him hope (Psalm 147:11; Isaiah 40:30-31; Romans 8:24-25; 1 Timothy 4:10).
This is reflective of the sinner when he/she discovers the destitute
condition of his life because of sin. It is a realization that, apart
from God, there is no hope (Ephesians 2:12; 2 Timothy 2:25-26). This is when a repentant sinner “comes to his senses” and longs to return to the state of fellowship with God which was lost when Adam sinned (Genesis 3:8).
The son devises a plan of action. Though at a quick glance it may seem
that he may not be truly repentant, but rather motivated by his hunger, a
more thorough study of the text gives new insights. He is willing to
give up his rights as his father’s son and take on the position of his
servant. We can only speculate on this point, but he may even have been
willing to repay what he had lost (Luke 19:8; Leviticus 6:4-5).
Regardless of the motivation, it demonstrates a true humility and true
repentance, not based on what he said but on what he was willing to do
and eventually acted upon (Acts 26:20).
He realizes he had no right to claim a blessing upon return to his
father’s household, nor does he have anything to offer, except a life of
service, in repentance of his previous actions. With that, he is
prepared to fall at his father’s feet and hope for forgiveness and
mercy. This is exactly what conversion is all about: ending a life of
slavery to sin through confession to the Father and faith in Jesus
Christ and becoming a slave to righteousness, offering one’s body as a
living sacrifice (1 John 1:9; Romans 6:6-18; 12:1). Jesus portrays the father as
waiting for his son, perhaps daily searching the distant road, hoping
for his appearance. The father notices him while he was still a long way
off. The father’s compassion assumes some knowledge of the son’s
pitiful state, possibly from reports sent home. During that time it was
not the custom of men to run, yet the father runs to greet his son (vs.20).
Why would he break convention for this wayward child who had sinned
against him? The obvious answer is because he loved him and was eager to
show him that love and restore the relationship. When the father
reaches his son, not only does he throw his arms around him, but he also
greets him with a kiss of love (1 Peter 5:14).
He is so filled with joy at his son’s return that he doesn’t even let
him finish his confession. Nor does he question or lecture him; instead,
he unconditionally forgives him and accepts him back into fellowship.
The father running to his son, greeting him with a kiss and ordering the
celebration is a picture of how our Heavenly Father feels towards
sinners who repent. God greatly loves us, patiently waits for us to
repent so he can show us His great mercy, because he does not want any
to perish nor escape as though by the fire (Ephesians 2:1-10; 2 Peter 3:9; 1 Corinthians 3:15). This prodigal son was satisfied to
return home as a slave, but to his surprise and delight is restored
back into the full privilege of being his father’s son. He had been
transformed from a state of destitution to complete restoration. That is
what God’s grace does for a penitent sinner (Psalm 40:2; 103:4).
Not only are we forgiven, but we receive a spirit of sonship as His
children, heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, of His incomparable
riches (Romans 8:16-17; Ephesians 1:18-19).
The father then orders the servants to bring the best robe, no doubt
one of his own (a sign of dignity and honor, proof of the prodigal’s
acceptance back into the family), a ring for the son’s hand (a sign of
authority and sonship) and sandals for his feet (a sign of not being a
servant, as servants did not wear shoes—or, for that matter, rings or
expensive clothing, vs.22). All these things represent what we receive in Christ upon salvation: the robe of the Redeemer’s righteousness (Isaiah 61:10), the privilege of partaking of the Spirit of adoption (Ephesians 1:5), and feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace, prepared to walk in the ways of holiness (Ephesians 6:15). A fattened calf is prepared, and a party is held (notice that blood was shed = atonement for sin, Hebrews 9:22). Fatted calves in those times were saved for special occasions such as the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:26-32).
This was not just any party; it was a rare and complete celebration.
Had the boy been dealt with according to the Law, there would have been a
funeral, not a celebration. “The Lord does
not treat us as our sins deserve or repay us according to our
iniquities. For as high as the heavens are above the earth, so great is
his love for those who fear him; as far as the east is from the west, so
far has he removed our transgressions from us. As a father has
compassion on his children, so the Lord has compassion on those who fear
him.” (Psalm 103:10-13).
Instead of condemnation, there is rejoicing for a son who had been dead
but now is alive, who once was lost but now is found (Romans 8:1; John 5:24).
Note the parallel between “dead” and “alive” and “lost” and
“found”—terms that also apply to one’s state before and after conversion
to Christ (Ephesians 2:1-5). This is a picture of what occurs in heaven over one repentant sinner (Luke 10). Now to the final and tragic
character in the Parable of the Prodigal Son, the oldest son, who, once
again, illustrates the Pharisees and the scribes. Outwardly they lived
blameless lives, but inwardly their attitudes were abominable (Matthew 23:25-28).
This was true of the older son who worked hard, obeyed his father, and
brought no disgrace to his family or townspeople. It is obvious by his
words and actions, upon his brothers return, that he is not showing love
for his father or brother. One of the duties of the eldest son would
have included reconciliation between the father and his son. He would
have been the host at the feast to celebrate his brother’s return. Yet
he remains in the field instead of in the house where he should have
been. This act alone would have brought public disgrace upon the father.
Still, the father, with great patience, goes to his angry and hurting
son. He does not rebuke him as his actions and disrespectful address of
his father warrant (vs.29, “Look,” he says, instead of addressing him as “father” or “my lord”),
nor does his compassion cease as he listens to his complaints and
criticisms. The boy appeals to his father’s righteousness by proudly
proclaiming his own self-righteousness in comparison to his brother’s
sinfulness (Matthew 7:3-5). By saying, “This son of yours,” the older brother avoids acknowledging that the prodigal is his own brother (vs. 30). Just like the Pharisees, the older brother was defining sin by outward actions, not inward attitudes (Luke 18:9-14).
In essence, the older brother is saying that he was the one worthy of
the celebration, and his father had been ungrateful for all his work.
Now the one who had squandered his wealth was getting what he, the older
son, deserved. The father tenderly addresses his oldest as “my son”(vs. 31) and corrects the error in his thinking by referring to the prodigal son as “this brother of yours” (vs. 32). The father’s response, “We had to celebrate,”
suggests that the elder brother should have joined in the celebration,
as there seems to be a sense of urgency in not postponing the
celebration of the brother’s return. The older brother’s focus was on
himself, and as a result there is no joy in his brother’s arrival home.
He is so consumed with issues of justice and equity that he fails to see
the value of his brother’s repentance and return. He fails to realize
that “anyone who claims to be in the light
but hates his brother is still in the darkness. Whoever loves his
brother lives in the light, and there is nothing in him to make him
stumble. But whoever hates his brother is in the darkness; he does not
know where he is going, because the darkness has blinded him” (1 John 2:9-11).
The older brother allows anger to take root in his heart to the point
that he is unable to show compassion towards his brother, and, for that
matter he is unable to forgive the perceived sin of his father against
him (Genesis 4:5-8).
He prefers to nurse his anger rather than enjoy fellowship with his
father, brother and the community. He chooses suffering and isolation
over restoration and reconciliation (Matthew 5:24; 6:14-15).
He sees his brother’s return as a threat to his own inheritance. After
all, why should he have to share his portion with a brother who has
squandered his? And why hadn’t his father rejoiced in his presence
through his faithful years of service? The wise father seeks to bring
restoration by pointing out that all he has is and has always been
available for the asking to his obedient son, as it was his portion of
the inheritance since the time of the allotment. The older son never
utilized the blessings at his disposal (Galatians 5:22; 2 Peter 1:5-8).
This is similar to the Pharisees with their religion of good works.
They hoped to earn blessings from God and in their obedience merit
eternal life (Romans 9:31-33; 10:3).
They failed to understand the grace of God and failed to comprehend the
meaning of forgiveness. It was, therefore, not what they did that
became a stumbling block to their growth but rather what they did not do
which alienated them from God (Matthew 23:23-24, Romans 10:4). They were irate when Jesus was receiving and forgiving “unholy”
people, failing to see their own need for a Savior. We do not know how
this story ended for the oldest son, but we do know that the Pharisees
continued to oppose Jesus and separate themselves from His followers.
Despite the father’s pleading for them to “come in,” they refused and were the ones who instigated the arrest and crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:59). A tragic ending to a story filled with such hope, mercy, joy, and forgiveness. The picture of the father
receiving the son back into relationship is a picture of how we should
respond to repentant sinners as well (1 John 4:20-21; Luke 17:3; Galatians 6:1; James 5:19-20). “All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23). We are included in that “all,” and we must remember that “all our righteous acts are like filthy rags” apart from Christ (Isaiah 64:6; John 15:1-6). It is only by God’s grace that we are saved, not by works that we may boast of (Ephesians 2:9; Romans 9:16; Psalm 51:5). That is the core message of the Parable of the Prodigal Son. Recommended Resource:Parables of Jesus by James Montgomery Boice.